Tous les articles par Camille Rouquet

31 mars 2017 – Lise Delmas, « Our history is far stranger than you suspect » : Usages de la photographie dans la construction de l’histoire africaine-américaine

« Our history is far stranger than you suspect[1] » : Usages de la photographie dans la construction de l’histoire africaine-américaine

 

Cette communication explore les liens entre la photographie et l’histoire africaine-américaine et analyse la place centrale de cette technologie dans la construction historique et mémorielle noire. Comme le souligne l’historienne Leigh Raiford, professeur d’études africaines-américaines à l’université de Berkeley : « Photography stands at the crossroads of history and memory. This intersection is certainly not uncomplicated  or unvexed[2]. »

Afin d’explorer ces relations complexes, l’analyse s’articule autour du concept des lieux de mémoire (théorisé par l’historien français Pierre Nora en 1984[3]), qui désigne  la cristallisation du souvenir, par définition intime, mouvant et subjectif, dans le concret de l’archive et du commémoratif.

Les lieux de mémoire, comme le rappellent Geneviève Fabre et Robert O’Mealy en reprenant cette notion dans l’ouvrage History and Memory in African-American Culture, sont des objets d’une immense diversité, dates anniversaire, endroits, personnages ou oeuvres, investis à la fois par l’affectif du souvenir et l’utilitaire de l’histoire.

En considérant la photographie comme un lieu de mémoire particulièrement important pour la communauté noire, cette communication s’intéresse à la place du médium dans les tensions qui caractérisent les processus d’écriture de l’histoire noire aux Etats-Unis.

L’analyse de trois usages de la photographie dans la construction historique africaine-américaine structure le développement :

 

1 – La photographie comme miroir (dé)formant de l’altérité

En prenant comme exemples des daguerréotypes d’esclaves et d’abolitionnistes datant du XIXe siècle, cette partie considère la photographie comme un outil d’appréhension et de définition de l’autre et de soi, dont les Noirs furent certes victimes, mais qu’ils parvinrent à maîtriser et à utiliser afin d’opposer une contre-vision à l’altérité déformée et fantasmée produite par la classe blanche dominante.

 

2 – La photographie comme témoin intime d’une mémoire collective

Ce paragraphe sconsidère le rôle des images au sein de la famille et de la communauté. En s’appuyant sur des photographies de James Van Der Zee, Morgan et Marvin Smith et de Gordon Parks, nous montrons en quoi les clichés photographiques acquirent une signification particulière pour la communauté africaine-américaine, en les analysant notamment à la lumière du concept de résistance.

 

3 – La photographie comme instrument de lutte politique

Nous nous intéressons ici à l’instrumentalisation de la photographie par les acteurs des mouvements de lutte africains-américains, plus précisément la NAACP et le Black Panther Party, en analysant comment ces deux entités se sont emparé de l’iconographie du lynchage pour servir leurs luttes politiques.

 

[1] Richard Wright, 12 Million Black Voices, New York, Basic Books, 2002 [1941], p.16.

[2] Leigh Raiford, « Photography and the Practices of Critical Black Memory », History and Theory Theme Issue, 48, Décembre 2009, p. 118.

[3] Pierre Nora (dir.), « Entre mémoire et histoire », Les lieux de mémoire, Gallimard, Paris, 1984.

 

 

______

Lise Delmas, doctorante contractuelle à l’Université de Bretagne Occidentale, à Brest. Actuellement inscrite en deuxième année de doctorat, sous la direction de Marie-Christine Agosto, dans le laboratoire HCTI (Héritages et Constructions dans le Texte et l’Image, EA 4249). Mon sujet de thèse porte sur la construction d’une visibilité africaine-américaine dans l’oeuvre photographique de Gordon Parks.

Statement of Intention for the Camera Memoria Seminar – Claire Gallien, maître de conférences, UPVM3

I. Main topics I would like to tackle within the framework of the seminar

Photography, archaeology, archive, memory, orientalism, European colonialism/imperialism in the Middle-East and the “Middle-East” as region defined by Europe, the use of photography by contemporary Arab artists as interventions against the on-going regime of coloniality and war in the region.
II. Proposal

Title:

From Blank to Blurred. Orientalist Landscapes, Imperial Erasures, and the Politics of Disappearance in Emily Jacir’s, Fazal Sheikh’s, and Jananne Al-Ani’s Photography.

Abstract:

I would like to focus on the works of Emily Jacir (with Susan Buck-Morss), Fazal Sheikh (with Eyal Weizman), and Jananne Al-Ani, who use photography, film, archaeology and architecture to undo the Orientalist/colonial configurations of the Middle East and in particular Palestinian Occupied Territories, the desert of the Negev, and Iraq. Their photography interrogates the politics embedded in the orientalist/colonial aesthetics of erasure and by doing so highlight the violence of Western and Israeli colonial projects in our not-yet-postcolonial times. Resisting colonial obfuscations and occlusions, their photographs and films produce “counter-histories” (Brunet) and define spaces of re-appearance, resurfacing, and return.

 

III. Intention

I would like to contribute to the Camera Memoria research community by presenting on these photographers and by unpacking the complex relationship between photography, memory, and power in the context of the contemporary Middle-East. Camera Memoria could represent a point of interaction where I would be able to exchange with scholars in the field interested with these questions.

Additionally, by posting on the research log, I hope to create a space of interaction prior and after my presentation, by for instance adding ideas, developing concepts, or by adding to the reading list of secondary (and perhaps primary) sources. I would also like to use the Camera Memoria research log to develop a participative quote-book where quotes relevant to the topic could be added by anyone to open new venues of reflections

 

IV. Primary Sources

·      Jacir, Emily et al. Belongings : Arbeiten/works 1998-2003. Wien: Folio, 2004.

[In particular: ‘Change/Exchange’ (1998), ‘Memorial to 418 Palestinian Villages Destroyed, Depopulated, and Occupied by Israel in 1948’ (2001), ‘Today, there are four million of us’ (2002), ‘In this Building’ (2002), ‘Where We Come From’ (2001-2003), and ‘Return’ (2003)]

·      Emily Jacir and Susan Buck-Morss, The Gift of the Past/ Das Gift der Vergangenheit, 100

Notes – 100 Thoughts/ 100 Notizen – 100 Gedanken, n°004, dOCUMENTA (13) (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 9/6/2012 – 16/9/2012).

[In particular sections called ‘Transitoriness,’ ‘Collective Memory,’ ‘Ephemeral Archives,’ ]

·      Fazal Sheikh, ‘Desert Bloom,’ Second Project in The Erasure Trilogy. Göttingen, Steidl,

2015.

·      Fazal Sheikh and Eyal Weizman, The Conflict Shoreline. Colonization as Climate Change

in the Negev Desert. Göttingen, Steidl, 2015.

·      Jananne al-Ani, Shadow Sites I and II. 2010-2011.

 

V. Secondary Sources

Barthes, Roland. [1980] Camera Lucida. Reflections on Photography. Trans. Richard Howard. London, Vintage Books, 2000.

Beaulieu, Jill, and Mary Roberts. Orientalism’s Interlocutors: Painting, Architecture, Photography. Durham, [NC]: Duke University Press, 2002.

Belden-Adams, Kris. Photography and Failure. London, Bloomsbury, 2017.

Benjamin, Walter. Selected Writings, 4 vols. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard UP, 1996-2003.

Benjamin, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, and Other Writings on Media, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard UP, 2008.

Walter Benjamin’s Archive: Images, Texts, Signs. Edited by Ursula Marx, Gudrun Schwarz, Michael Schwarz, Erdmut Wizisla, London, Verso, 2007?

Benvenisti, Meron. Sacred Landscape: Buried History of the Holy Land Since 1948, Berkeley, LA, U of California P, 2002.

Brunet, François. La photographie: Histoire et contre-histoire, Paris, PUF, 2017. [la contre-histoire par l’image]

Cohen, Saul Ephraim. The Politics of Planting. Berkeley, LA, U of California P, 1993.

Downey, Anthony, ed. Dissonant Archives. Contemporary Visiual Culture and Contested Narratives in the Middle East. London: I.B.Tauris, 2015.

Fisher, Kate. The Boundaries of Representation : Emily Jacir and the Palestinian Situation.

Hauser, Kitty. Shadow Sites: Photography, Archaeology, and the British Landscape 1927-1951. Oxford: OUP, 2007.

Kennedy, Liam, and Caitlin Patrick. The Violence of the Image : Photography and International Conflict. London: I.B. Tauris, 2014.

Klein, Naomi. ‘Let Them All Drown. The Violence of Othering in a Warming World,’ London Review of Books 38.11 (June 2016): 11-14.

Lambert, Léopold. La politique du bulldozer, Paris, editions B2, 2016.

Leshem, Noam. Life After Ruin : the Struggles Over Israel’s Depopulated Arab Spaces. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Mitchell, Timothy. Colonising Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Mitchell, Timothy. “Orientalism and the Exhibitionary Order.” In The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology, edited by Donald Preziosi, Oxford. OUP: 1998, n.d.

Rancière, Jacques. Le destin des images, Paris, La Fabrique éditions, 2003. [altérité ; ressemblance ; régime d’imagéité ; image nue, image ostensive ; montage ; représentation ; l’image non comme copie ou présence brute mais comme opération singulière ; l’irreprésentable]

Said, Edward. After the Last Sky: Palestinian Lives, with Photographs by Jean Mohr. New York, Pantheon, 1986.

Said, Edward. The Question of Palestine. New York, Vintage, 1979. See in particular the chapter entitled ‘Palestinian Depopulation’ (83-114).

Sontag, Susan. Regarding the Pain of Others. New York, Picador, 2003.

Thompson, Jerry L. Why Photography Matters. Cambridge, Mass, The MIT Press, 2013.

Weizman, Eyal. Hollow Land. Israeli’s Architecture of Occupation. London, Verso Books, 2007.

 

VI. The Quote-Book

‘History breaks down into images, not into stories’

– Waltern Benjamin, Arcades Project, 1927-1940.

 

VII. Your Comments

24 février 2017 – Kris Belden-Adams, Memory-Embalming No More: Digital Vernacular Social-Media Photographs and the Reframing of Remembrance

Memory-Embalming No More: Vernacular Photography
and the Reframing of Remembrance

 

Kris Belden-Adams, PhD; Presentation at the

University of Paris – Denis Diderot, Feb. 24, 2017

 

Photography, George Eastman wrote, “enables the fortunate professor to go back by the light of his own fireside to scenes which would otherwise fade from memory and be lost” (Eastman, in Newhall, 1982, 129). Eastman, Kodak’s founder, thus marketed vernacular photography as a means to supplement memory. However, other commentators, including Siegfried Kracauer and Roland Barthes, have suggested that photography operates in opposition to memory. Kracauer makes a distinction between the photograph and a “memory image,” in which the viewer selects only the things they wish to retain, while the image indiscriminately keeps everything (Kracauer, 1995). To Barthes, the photograph offers a “counter memory” which cannot convey the sensation of experiencing the moment itself (Barthes, 1981, 91). More recently, Mette Sandbye suggested that digital social-media photographs embody a very different approach to documenting memories: “[t]oday photography is predominantly a social, everyday activity rather than a memory-embalming one, creating presence, relational situations, and communication” (Sandbye, 2016, p. 97).

All of these commentators prompt historians and theorists of the medium to wonder: just what is photography’s relationship to memory?

This presentation explored the way in which taking and sharing of digital social-media photographs might relate to memory differently from vernacular analog practices. To these ends, it offered a brief case study for addressing memory-building in an analog family snapshot kept by one of its subjects in an album (Fig. 1). This photograph of children eating birthday cake conforms to Richard Chalfen’s parameters for the conventions of snapshots that prevailed in pre-1990s American popular culture, whose views of photography were shaped by Kodak’s advertising campaigns (Chalfen, 1987). It represented a milestone in a child’s life cycle, a birthday party, to document change, rather than to celebrate the mundane everyday routines. Moreover, it delivers tales/myths about ourselves to ourselves, while providing affirmation of common culture and providing a vehicle for family folklore that is shared among a small circle of viewers.

This image was contrasted with digital vernacular social-media photographs, which are a means of networked socializing and celebrating everyday moments, as Sandbye suggested. Within the context of social-media sites, such images most often convey a desired (innately part-fictional) persona, or avatar, of the self to a vast and expanded online audience (Belden-Adams, 2017).

Both analog and digital vernacular practices, function rhetorically to weave a calculated personal narrative, rather than acting as an “objective” document that preserves memory as a “memory image.” As such, they each prompt for an examination of memory’s “objectivity” – which is itself, according to John Paul Eakin, “one more source of fiction” (Eakin, 2000, p. 290). These practices of vernacular photography also provided an opportunity for reflection upon many differences (of audience, social intimacy, the formation of personal identity, oral and written narratives, and the preservation of personal history), across the analog/digital divide.

 

Fig. 1. Glenn Belden, Untitled Snapshot, 1971.

 

 

_____

Dr. Kris Belden-Adams is an Assistant Professor of Art History at the University of Mississippi, and specializes in the history of photography. She received her PhD from the City University of New York – Graduate Center in 2010. In addition to researching social-media photographs, she also studies the temporal dimensions of the medium. Dr. Belden-Adams’s recent scholarship also examines the selfie, and on the intersections of sewage and photography in the decades following the medium’s birth. Her work has been published by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and in Photographies, Afterimage, Southern Studies, The International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, and Cabinet.

http://www.beldenadams.com

Second Season – CFP 2017-2018

Camera Memoria
Séminaire sur les histoires de la photographie LARCA – UMR 8225

Appel à contributions 

Scroll down for English version

Après de nombreux échanges fructueux au premier semestre 2017, le séminaire Camera Memoria entre dans son deuxième cycle à la rentrée 2017. Dans le cadre de ce séminaire, des chercheurs issus de divers horizons étudieront les usages historiques de la photographie dans les communautés anglophones et leur influence à travers le monde.

Dès sa création, la photographie s’est imposée comme objet artistique mais aussi comme outil de mémoire ; elle s’est ensuite rapidement développée comme une pratique polyvalente, capable de cristalliser des moments historiques en clichés uniques ou au contraire de les exposer (ou au moins d’en collecter la trace) sous forme de documentation exhaustive. L’émergence d’une histoire culturelle de la photo américaine (Trachtenberg) puis des visual studies (Mitchell, Mirzoeff) atteste de la forte culture visuelle qui fait la spécificité du monde anglophone. Cette sensibilité aux images se reflète dans une « mémoire collective » (notion sans doute à discuter) largement construite sur les traces photographiques du passé.

L’allocation d’un nouvel espace aux photographies dans les musées et les archives a contribué à leur institutionnalisation, qui à son tour a renforcé le processus de construction de la mémoire collective par l’image. C’est en entrant dans cet espace institutionnalisé, prétendument objectif, que la photographie devient sujette à critiques. Ses pratiques modernes sont parfois considérées comme immémorables ou même iconoclastes lorsque la vie d’une image est trop courte, sa composition trop épurée, ou son contenu trop immoral ; nous étudierons alors les rôles que joue la photographie dans la construction – ou la déconstruction – de la mémoire, et examinerons les courants de pensée qui la valorisent et la critiquent.

Ce séminaire pourra accueillir des doctorants, docteurs et professeurs en sciences humaines – et le cas échéant en sciences dures – que leur approche relève des études culturelles, historiques, sociologiques, esthétiques, rhétoriques, politiques, anthropologiques ou encore économiques. Les interventions pourront comporter des questions méthodologiques et se baseront sur des théories et méthodologies variées (un ancrage en cultural studies et dans les bibliographies anglophones est bienvenu sans être requis). Ainsi, les pratiques photographiques, pourront être étudiées comme art, illustration, expression médiatique, documentation, enquête, etc. Les communications pourront concerner, sans s’y restreindre, les usages et applications muséaux, mémoriaux, discursifs et d’archive, dans les espaces privés, publics, collectifs, individuels, communautaires, ou universels.

Le séminaire débutera en octobre 2017 à l’université Paris Diderot et sera bimestriel. Au nombre de deux par séance, les communications se feront en anglais ou en français, dureront 30 à 40 minutes, et seront suivies d’une discussion.

Comité d’organisation: Camille Rouquet et Carolin Görgen, doctorantes au LARCA-UMR 8225. Parrainage LARCA-François Brunet, Université Paris Diderot.

Merci d’envoyer vos propositions de communication (350 mots maximum) ainsi qu’une courte notice biographique à camera.memoria@gmail.com avant le 15 juin 2017.

 
Camera Memoria
Seminar on the histories of photography LARCA – UMR 8225

Call for papers

Due to the great number of fruitful exchanges at the beginning of this year, the seminar Camera Memoria enters its second round at the beginning of the academic year 2017/18. We seek to bring together researchers from various backgrounds to study the uses of photography in the English- speaking world as well as their global impact.

From its inception, photography has been an instrument of memory-making as well as an artistic endeavor; it has become a versatile practice allowing to capture historical moments in the form of unique prints or, on the contrary, to expose them as comprehensive documentation or at least as material traces. With the emergence of a cultural history of American photography (Trachtenberg) as well as the rise of visual studies (Mitchell, Mirzoeff), the strong visual culture which is a particularity of the Anglo-American world, has become apparent. This heightened sensibility to images is reflected in a « collective memory » (not an uncontested notion) which is mainly constructed through photographic traces of the past.

The attribution of new spaces granted to photography in museums and archives has contributed to its institutionalization which, in turn, has reinforced the process of collective memory-making through images. When entering these institutionalized – allegedly objective – spaces, photography becomes subject to critical examination. Its contemporary practices are at times considered immemorable or even iconoclastic when the life of an image is ephemeral, its content limited or perhaps immoral. We therefore want to study the function(s) of photography in the construction – or the deconstruction – of memory by examining the various theories which appreciate and criticize this aspect.

This seminar welcomes proposals by doctoral candidates, PhDs, and professors in the humanities – and, when relevant, in the  »hard sciences » – who adopt a cultural, historical, sociological, esthetic, rhetorical, political, anthropological, or economic approach to the medium. Papers may treat methodological questions by re-examining existing theories (an attachment to cultural studies would be appreciated but is not required per se). From this perspective, photographic practices can be examined through the lens of art, illustration, press and other media coverage, documentation, survey, etc. Proposals may include but are not limited to the uses and applications of photography in museums, archives, memorial and discursive practices, as well as in private or public spaces, collective or individual uses, communal or universal spaces.

The seminar will start in October 2017, at the University Paris VII Denis Diderot and will take place every two months. Limited to two speakers per session, communications of about 30 to 40 minutes will be held in French or English, followed by a discussion.

Organizing committee: Camille Rouquet and Carolin Görgen, PhD candidates at the LARCA-UMR 8225. Sponsorship LARCA-François Brunet, Université Paris Diderot.

Please send your proposals (350 words or less) accompanied by a short biographical notice to camera.memoria@gmail.com by June 15, 2017. 

First Season – CFP 2017

Camera Memoria

Séminaire sur les histoires de la photographie

LARCA – UMR 8225

 

Appel à contributions

 

Scroll down for English version

 

Dans le cadre de ce nouveau séminaire, des chercheurs issus de divers horizons étudieront les usages historiques de la photographie dans les communautés anglophones et leur influence à travers le monde. 

 

Dès sa création, la photographie s’est imposée comme objet artistique mais aussi comme outil de mémoire ; elle s’est ensuite rapidement développée comme une pratique polyvalente, capable de cristalliser des moments historiques en clichés uniques ou au contraire de les exposer (ou au moins d’en collecter la trace) sous forme de documentation exhaustive. L’émergence d’une histoire culturelle de la photo américaine (Trachtenberg) puis des visual studies (Mitchell, Mirzoeff) atteste de la forte culture visuelle qui fait la spécificité du monde anglophone. Cette sensibilité aux images se reflète dans une « mémoire collective » (notion sans doute à discuter) largement construite sur les traces photographiques du passé.  

L’allocation d’un nouvel espace aux photographies dans les musées et les archives a contribué à leur institutionnalisation, qui à son tour a renforcé le processus de construction de la mémoire collective par l’image. C’est en entrant dans cet espace institutionnalisé, prétendument objectif, que la photographie devient sujette à critiques. Ses pratiques modernes sont parfois considérées comme immémorables ou même iconoclastes lorsque la vie d’une image est trop courte, sa composition trop épurée, ou son contenu trop immoral ; nous étudierons alors les rôles que joue la photographie dans la construction—ou la déconstruction—de la mémoire, et examinerons les courants de pensée qui la valorisent et la critiquent. 

 

Ce séminaire pourra accueillir des doctorants, docteurs et professeurs en sciences humaines—et le cas échéant en sciences dures—que leur approche relève des études culturelles, historiques, sociologiques, esthétiques, rhétoriques, politiques, anthropologiques ou encore économiques. Les interventions pourront comporter des questions méthodologiques et se baseront sur des théories et méthodologies variées (un ancrage en cultural studies et dans les bibliographies anglophones est bienvenu sans être requis). Ainsi, les pratiques photographiques, pourront être étudiées comme art, illustration, expression médiatique, documentation, enquête, etc. Les communications pourront concerner, sans s’y restreindre, les usages et applications muséaux, mémoriaux, discursifs et d’archive, dans les espaces privés, publics, collectifs, individuels, communautaires, ou universels.

 

Le séminaire débutera en janvier 2017 à l’université Paris Diderot et sera bimestriel. Au nombre de deux par séance, les communications se feront en anglais ou en français, dureront 30 à 40 minutes, et seront suivies d’une discussion.

 

Comité d’organisation : Camille Rouquet et Carolin Görgen, doctorantes au LARCA-UMR 8225. Parrainage LARCA-François Brunet, Université Paris Diderot.

 

Merci d’envoyer vos propositions de communication (350 mots maximum) ainsi qu’une courte notice biographique à camera.memoria@gmail.com avant le 31 octobre 2016.

 

 

Camera Memoria

Seminar on the histories of photography

LARCA – UMR 8225

 

Call for papers

This seminar seeks to bring together researchers from various backgrounds to study the uses of photography in the English-speaking world as well as their global impact.

 

From its inception, photography has been an instrument of memory-making as well as an artistic endeavor; it has become a versatile practice allowing to capture historical moments in the form of unique prints or, on the contrary, to expose them as comprehensive documentation or at least as material traces. With the emergence of a cultural history of American photography (Trachtenberg) as well as the rise of visual studies (Mitchell, Mirzoeff), the strong visual culture which is a particularity of the Anglo-American world, has become apparent. This heightened sensibility to images is reflected in a “collective memory” (not an uncontested notion) which is mainly constructed through photographic traces of the past.

The attribution of new spaces granted to photography in museums and archives has contributed to its institutionalization which, in turn, has reinforced the process of collective memory-making through images. When entering these institutionalized – allegedly objective – spaces, photography becomes subject to critical examination. Its contemporary practices are at times considered immemorable or even iconoclastic when the life of an image is ephemeral, its content limited or perhaps immoral. We therefore want to study the function(s) of photography in the construction – or the deconstruction – of memory by examining the various theories which appreciate and criticize this aspect.

 

This seminar welcomes proposals by doctoral candidates, PhDs, and professors in the humanities – and, when relevant, in the  »hard sciences » – who adopt a cultural, historical, sociological, esthetic, rhetorical, political, anthropological, or economic approach to the medium. Papers may treat methodological questions by re-examining existing theories (an attachment to cultural studies would be appreciated but is not required per se). From this perspective, photographic practices can be examined through the lens of art, illustration, press and other media coverage, documentation, survey, etc. Proposals may include but are not limited to the uses and applications of photography in museums, archives, memorial and discursive practices, as well as in private or public spaces, collective or individual uses, communal or universal spaces.

 

The seminar will start in January 2017, at the University Paris VII Denis Diderot and will take place every two months. Limited to two speakers per session, communications of about 30 to 40 minutes will be held in French or English, followed by a discussion.

 

Organizing committee: Camille Rouquet and Carolin Görgen, PhD candidates at the LARCA-UMR 8225. Sponsorship LARCA-François Brunet, Université Paris Diderot.

 

Please send your proposals (350 words or less) accompanied by a short biographical notice to camera.memoria@gmail.com by October 31, 2016.